[tdwg-content] dwc: city to county

John R. WIECZOREK tuco at berkeley.edu
Tue Aug 18 19:10:45 CEST 2009

First, realize that dcterms:Location (not dcterms:location) is a
class, not a property. The terminal (most specific) named area should
go in dwcterms:locality.

On Tue, Aug 18, 2009 at 9:57 AM, Markus Döring<m.doering at mac.com> wrote:
> I was thinking of using the terms for synthesized species distributions, not
> individual occurrence records.
> Initially I thought about using locality to specify a "named area", but I
> figured the term is too small scale for this use. Really I am looking for a
> term to represent the terminal named area, no matter what "rank" it is.
> locationID is perfect, ideally in company with dc/dwc:location, but
> dwc:higherGeography might do the trick.
> Markus
> On Aug 18, 2009, at 18:47, John R. WIECZOREK wrote:
>> Seems like if the locationID is referring to a value in a standard (in
>> this case a term in a vocabulary) it should be resolvable, so why not
>> locationID=rs.tdwg.org/ontology/voc/GeographicRegion#AGS-TF or
>> something like that?
>> The extremely important thing that may be slipping through the cracks
>> in this discussion is that the locationID should be the identifier for
>> the whole content of the Location part of the record, not just one
>> part of it.
>> In other words the following combination would be appropriate:
>> locationID="rs.tdwg.org/ontology/voc/GeographicRegion#AGS-TF"
>> higherGeopgraphy="Argentina, Tierra del Fuego"
>> country="Argentina"
>> countryCode="AR"
>> stateProvince="Tierra del Fuego"
>> locality={null}
>> but the following combination would not:
>> locationID="rs.tdwg.org/ontology/voc/GeographicRegion#AGS-TF"
>> higherGeopgraphy="Argentina, Tierra del Fuego"
>> country="Argentina"
>> countryCode="AR"
>> stateProvince="Tierra del Fuego"
>> locality="seashore on route from city of Ushuaia to Ushuaia airport"
>> John
>> On Tue, Aug 18, 2009 at 9:10 AM, Markus Döring<m.doering at mac.com> wrote:
>>> so this would be acceptable?
>>> locationID="AGS-TF"
>>> higherGeography="Argentina;Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi"
>>> countryCode="AR"
>>> it would be great to be able to specify the reference system for the id.
>>> I guess I have to make it a global ID "somehow" inventing URI schemes for
>>> non existing ones?
>>> locationID="tdwg:AGS-TF"
>>> locationID="ISO3166:AR"
>>> locationID="ISO3166:ARG"
>>> locationID="WOEID:564721"
>>> It wont be understood everywhere and there is no guarantee it really is
>>> globally unique, but it is probably good enough for most use cases and if
>>> the exchanging people agree on scheme prefixes it will work. Notmuch
>>> different from having a seperate reference term.
>>> thanks john!
>>> Markus
>>> On Aug 18, 2009, at 17:56, John R. WIECZOREK wrote:
>>>> For your first cases - protected areas or tdwg biogeographic regions
>>>> (and many other categories of places) - use the higherGeography term.
>>>> The comment for the term already shows an example containing a
>>>> protected area:
>>>> Example: "South America; Argentina; Patagonia; Parque Nacional Nahuel
>>>> Huapi; Neuquén; Los Lagos" with accompanying values "South America" in
>>>> Continent, "Argentina" in Country, "Neuquén" in StateProvince, and Los
>>>> Lagos in County.
>>>> In the case of the id, use locationID. If the value given in
>>>> locationID isn't resolvable all on its own (thus providing the
>>>> reference system), then it isn't a global identifier and it will have
>>>> meaning only within the data set.
>>>> On Sun, Aug 16, 2009 at 1:20 PM, Markus Döring<m.doering at mac.com> wrote:
>>>>> This reminds me of another question I had for a long time.
>>>>> If I want to express a species is found within a protected area X or
>>>>> within
>>>>> the tdwg biogeographic region "AGS-TF, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)" or
>>>>> as a
>>>>> yahoo where-on-earth-id, how would I encode this with dwc? Should I use
>>>>> dwc:locality, dc:location or through the new terms dwc:locationID? Is
>>>>> there
>>>>> a way to specify the "reference system" so others know where my ids
>>>>> come
>>>>> from?
>>>>> Markus
>>>>> On Aug 13, 2009, at 21:30, John R. WIECZOREK wrote:
>>>>>> Hi Gregor and others,
>>>>>> I greatly appreciate the comments. It gives me the incentive to cover
>>>>>> geographical issues that others have not touched yet in this
>>>>>> discussion. Geographical division relationships are even more complex
>>>>>> than taxonomic name hierarchies, and the DwC terms do not accommodate
>>>>>> the full complexity that exists. Happily though, I don't think they
>>>>>> have to.
>>>>>> The terms we have at the moment are those found most commonly in
>>>>>> biodiversity databases and derive their names from an unfortunate
>>>>>> North American geopolitical bias.
>>>>>> There are really four major problems. First, the names of geopolitical
>>>>>> divisions (state, province, etc.) are quite diverse (see some
>>>>>> statistics from the GADM database at the end of this message) and
>>>>>> cannot be well represented by any term name based on only one of them.
>>>>>> Second, the same term may apply to more than one level of subdivision
>>>>>> (e.g., both "state" and "province" occur as first and second level
>>>>>> subdivisions of countries; "county" and "city" both occur as first,
>>>>>> second, and third level subdivisions).  Third, two geopolitical
>>>>>> subdivisions of countries are insufficient to capture the full
>>>>>> diversity of subdivision systems in existence. Some countries have
>>>>>> three, four, or even five subdivisions.  Fourth, the use of a
>>>>>> particular subdivision may be ignored in some contexts while not in
>>>>>> others - there may be parallel or historical systems in use, one
>>>>>> person's first-order subdivision may be another person's second order
>>>>>> subdivision, or extra subdivisions may exist for some administrative
>>>>>> areas. Germany's Regierungsbezirk is a perfect example of the latter -
>>>>>> it exists within some Bundesländer and not within others.
>>>>>> I think the proposed "city" term would be a victim of all of the same
>>>>>> issues that the stateProvince and county terms have.
>>>>>> How do we solve these problems satisfactorily?
>>>>>> Country and countryCode, I propose, can be left as is.
>>>>>> To be fair while solving the first and second problems, the terms used
>>>>>> in DwC to atomize geographic subdivisions should be generic.
>>>>>> The third and fourth problems suggest that atomic subdivisions within
>>>>>> countries cannot be given unambiguous definitions. If their
>>>>>> interpretation and content will vary, do they have utility?
>>>>>> I'd like to be a purist - to be complete, clear, and consistent. If I
>>>>>> was, I'd propose only the following geographic terms:
>>>>>> countryCode, Locality, verbatimLocality
>>>>>> and I would count on georeferences to tell me the rest of what I need
>>>>>> to know based on my own world view during the period of interest.
>>>>>> Locality in this case would contain everything the contributor would
>>>>>> have otherwise put in higherGeography, continent, waterBody,
>>>>>> islandGroup, island, country, stateProvince, and county.
>>>>>> But I'm not a purist, I actually like things that are useful right now
>>>>>> too. Some of the concepts above that the purist me would discard are
>>>>>> actually useful from experience. I would put them in the following
>>>>>> order of diminishing utility: stateProvince, county, higherGeography,
>>>>>> country, waterBody, continent, island, islandGroup. Of these, two are
>>>>>> extremely useful but have problematic names - "stateProvince" and
>>>>>> "county". Though these have long historical precedents for use under
>>>>>> these names, I am not averse to making them more generic (plenty of
>>>>>> other names in DwC have had to be changed so as not to offend someone)
>>>>>> - something like "countrySubdivision1" and "countrySubdivision2". I
>>>>>> will actually make these changes unless I hear cogent arguments to the
>>>>>> contrary, soon.
>>>>>> The remaining questions in my mind are, "Does there need to be a
>>>>>> 'countrySubdivision3' term?" and "Why stop there? Why not include all
>>>>>> 5 subdivision levels?"  These I will not add unless there is support
>>>>>> expressed for the idea by more than just me.
>>>>>> Mind you, none of the proposed solution will actually help Gregor to
>>>>>> figure out where to put his city values, nor will it assure him that
>>>>>> he can find all relevant records if he searches for a city value in a
>>>>>> particular term because there is no guarantee that everyone shares his
>>>>>> world view in their input data. Here again I argue that the only
>>>>>> reasonable chance of success is through a spatial query, requiring all
>>>>>> records to be georeferenced. Hey, at least there is a definitive
>>>>>> solution. ;-)
>>>>>> The rest of this message contains information about the content of the
>>>>>> GADM administrative areas database version 1.0, which informs the
>>>>>> discussion above.
>>>>>> Counts of geopolitical subdivision types within countries:
>>>>>> Level:Count
>>>>>> 1:240 (in other words 240 names for administrative features such as
>>>>>> "state", "province", etc. at the first subdivision of countries)
>>>>>> 2:215 (...215 names for administrative features such as "county" at
>>>>>> the second subdivision of countries)
>>>>>> 3:126
>>>>>> 4:25
>>>>>> 5:2
>>>>>> Counts of geopolitical entities for each level:
>>>>>> Level:Count
>>>>>> 0:248 (countries)
>>>>>> 1:3366 ("states", "provinces", etc.)
>>>>>> 2:39136 ("counties", etc.)
>>>>>> 3:99097
>>>>>> 4:40550
>>>>>> 5:3655
>>>>>> Names for geopolitical subdivisions from GADM version 1.0:
>>>>>> Aboriginal Council, Administrative Area, Administrative Committee,
>>>>>> Administrative County, Administrative Region, Administrative State,
>>>>>> Administrative Zone, Aftonomi Monastiki Politia, Aimag, Amphoe, Amt,
>>>>>> Anchal, AOk, Aprinki, Apskritis, Area, Arrondissement, Arrondissment,
>>>>>> Assembly, Astedader Akababi, Atoll, Automonous Region, Autonomous
>>>>>> Banner, Autonomous City, Autonomous Commune, Autonomous Community,
>>>>>> Autonomous County, Autonomous Island, Autonomous Monastic State,
>>>>>> Autonomous Okurg, Autonomous Prefecture, Autonomous Province,
>>>>>> Autonomous Region, Autonomous Republic, Autonomous Sector, Autonomous
>>>>>> Territory, Avtonomiuri Respublika, Avtonomnaya Oblast, Avtonomnyy
>>>>>> Okrug, aymag, Baladiyah, Banner, Barangay, Bashkia, Bayan, Bezirke,
>>>>>> Bibhag, Boma, Borough, Bundesland, Bundesländ, Canton, Canton
>>>>>> Municipality, Capital, Capital City, Capital District, Capital
>>>>>> Metropolitan City, Capital Region, Capital Territory, Castello, Census
>>>>>> Area, Census Division, Centrally Administered Area, Cercle, Changwat,
>>>>>> Chantun, Chartered Community, Chef-Lieu-Wilaya, Chiefdom, Chuan-shih,
>>>>>> Circle, Circuit, Cité, City, City and Borough, City and County, City
>>>>>> council, City Municipality, Ciudad Autónoma, Ciudades Autónomas, Clan,
>>>>>> Colline, Comarca, Comarca Indígena, Comisaría, Commissiary, Communauté
>>>>>> Urbaine, Commune, Commune and Prefecture, Commune and Préfecture,
>>>>>> Commune Autonome, Commune Rural, Commune Urbaine, Commune-Cotiere,
>>>>>> Community, Community Government Council, Comuna, Comunidad Autónoma,
>>>>>> Concelho, Conservancy, Constituency, Constituent Country,
>>>>>> Corregimiento, Corregimiento Departamento, Country, County, County
>>>>>> City, County Municipality, Daerah Istimewa, Daerah Khusus Ibukota,
>>>>>> Daerah-Daerah, Delegation, Departamento, Département, Department,
>>>>>> Dependencias Federales, Dependency, Development Region, Diamerismata,
>>>>>> Dìjíshì, Dìqu, Directly Governed City, District, District Council,
>>>>>> District Municipality, Distrik, Distrikkaya, Distrikt, Distrito,
>>>>>> Distrito Capital, Distrito Federal, Division, Do, Dzongkhag, Economic
>>>>>> Prefecture, Eilandgebieden, Ekonomisk region, Emirate, Entity, Estado,
>>>>>> Établissemnet Indien, Faritany Mizakatena, Faritra, Federal
>>>>>> Dependency, Federal District, Federal State, Fivondronana, Fokontany,
>>>>>> Fovaros, Fu, Fylke, Gemeente, Gemeinden, Gobolka, Gorod, Gorsovet,
>>>>>> Governarate, Governorate, Grad, Gu, Gun, Guyŏk, Gwangyeoksi, Hamlet,
>>>>>> Headquarter, Home Nation, Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, Hot, Hsien, Huyện,
>>>>>> Il, Improvement District, Independent City, Independent Town, Indian
>>>>>> Government District, Indian Reserve, Indian Settlement, Indigenous
>>>>>> Territory, Intendancy, Intendencia, Inuite Land, Island, Island Area,
>>>>>> Island Council, Island Group, Island Municipality, Island Region,
>>>>>> Itumalo, Jilla, Judet, Kabupaten, Kaghak, K'alak'i, Kampeng Nakhon,
>>>>>> Kanton, Kata, Kata Ndogo, Kaupstadir, Kayaing, Ken, Khet, Khêt,
>>>>>> Khetphiset, Khoueng, Khum, Kilil, King Amphoe, Kingdom, Kommun,
>>>>>> Kommuneat, Kommuner, Kommunur, Kotamadya, Kraj, Kray, Kreisfreie
>>>>>> Städte, Krong, Kunta, Lääni, Laen, Lake, Lalawigan, län, Land, Länd,
>>>>>> Land Reserved, Landkreise, landskap, Landsvæði, Lansdele, League,
>>>>>> Local Authority, Local Government Area, Local Government District,
>>>>>> Localidad, Locality, Location, London Borough, London Borough (city),
>>>>>> London Borough (royal), Lungsod, Maakond, Maakunta, Machi, Magisterial
>>>>>> District, Marz, Maslikhat, Megye, Mehoz, Méng, Metropolis,
>>>>>> Metropolitan Borough (city), Metropolitan City, Metropolitan County,
>>>>>> Metropolitan District, Miesto Savivaldybe, Minor district, Mintaqah,
>>>>>> Mis'ka Rada, Misto, Mkoa, Moughataas, Muderiah, Muhafazah, Mukim,
>>>>>> Municipal, Municipal District, Municipalité, Municipalité De Canton,
>>>>>> Municipalité De Cantons Unis, Municipalité De Paroisse, Municipalité
>>>>>> Régionale de Comté, Municipality, Municipality / Mun. Council,
>>>>>> Municipality/Municipal Council, Municipio, Município, Municipio
>>>>>> Especial, Municipiu, Municpality, Munisipyo, Muong, Mura, Nahia,
>>>>>> National Capital Area, National District, National Park, National
>>>>>> Territory, Neighbourhood Democratic, Neutral City, New District,
>>>>>> Nisga'a Land, Nisga'a Village, Nomos, Non Organisé, Northern Hamlet,
>>>>>> Northern Village, Not Classified, Oblast, Oblast', Oblasy, Obshtina,
>>>>>> Okres, Okrug, Opcine, Opština, Opštine, Ostan, Outlying Island,
>>>>>> Parish, Parish Municipality, Parroquia, Parròquia, Part, Partido,
>>>>>> Phum, Po, Poblacion, Población, Powiat, Prefecture, Préfecture,
>>>>>> Prefecture City, Prefegitura, Principality, Probinsya, Propinsi,
>>>>>> Province, Provincia, Província, Provincie, Provinsie, Pyine, Qark, Qí,
>>>>>> Quận, Quarter, Qúndao, Raion, Raioni, rajoni, Rajono Savivaldybe,
>>>>>> Rayon, Reef, Regencies, Regency, Região, Regierungsbezirk, Regiões
>>>>>> autônoma, Region, Región, Région, Región Autónoma, Région Capitale,
>>>>>> Regional Council, Regional County Municipality, Regional District,
>>>>>> Regional District Electoral Area, Regional Municipality, Regione,
>>>>>> Republic, Repuplikasi, Reserve, Réserve Indienne, Resort Village,
>>>>>> Respublika, Ressort, Rreth, Rural City, Rural Commune, Rural
>>>>>> Community, Rural district, Rural Municipality, Sahar, Savivaldybe,
>>>>>> Sector, Sector Autónomo, Senatorial District, Settlement, Seutukunta,
>>>>>> Sha'biyah, Sha'biyat, Shahar, Shahrestan, Shěng, Shi, Shire, Shìxiáqū,
>>>>>> Si, Siyudad, Soum, Sous Colline, Sous-préfecture, Sous-régions,
>>>>>> Special Administrative Region, Special Area, Special City, Special
>>>>>> district, Special Municipality, Special Region, Special Ward,
>>>>>> Specialized Municipality, Srok, State, Statistical Region, Statisticna
>>>>>> Regije, Statutární město, Statutarstädte, Statutory City, Sub
>>>>>> district, Sub location, Sub Town, Sub-chief, Sub-county, Sub-district,
>>>>>> Subdivision of County Municipality, Subdivision of Unorganized,
>>>>>> Sub-prefecture, Sub-Province, Sub-region, Sum, Summer Village,
>>>>>> Sveitarfélög , sýsla, Syssel, Taarafa, Taluk, Tambon, Tarafa, Tèqū,
>>>>>> Terre Inuite, Terres Réservées, Territoire, Territorial Authority,
>>>>>> Territorial Unit, Territorio Nacional, Territory, Teslin Land,
>>>>>> Teukbyeolsi, Than Pho, Thana, Thanh Pho, Thành phố trực thuộc tỉnh,
>>>>>> Thi xa, Tỉnh, To, Town, Town Council, Townlet, Township, Township and
>>>>>> Royalty, Traditional Authority, Traditional County, T'ŭkbyŏl
>>>>>> Haengjeonggu, Uknown, Union Territor, Union Territory, Unitary
>>>>>> Authority, Unitary Authority (city), Unitary Authority (county),
>>>>>> Unitary Authority (wales, Unitary Authority (wales), Unitary District,
>>>>>> Unitary District (city), Unitate Teritorială Autonomă, Unitatea
>>>>>> Teritorială, United Cantons Municipality, United Counties, United
>>>>>> County, Unknown, Unorganized, Upazila, Urban, Urban Commune, Urban
>>>>>> district, Urban Prefecture, Velayat, Vikas Kshetra, Village, Village
>>>>>> Cri, Village Naskapi, Village Nordique, Ville, Viloiati Mukhtori,
>>>>>> Viloyat, Viloyati Avtonomii, Voblasts', Voivodeship, Ward, Water body,
>>>>>> Waterbody, Welayat, Wilaya, Wilayat, Willaya, Wiloyat, Województwo,
>>>>>> Woreda, Xiàn, Xiànjíshì, Xíngzhèng Wěiyuánhuì, Xīnqū, Yin, Zhíxiáshì,
>>>>>> Zila, Zìzhìqí, Zizhiqu, Zìzhìqu, Zìzhìxiàn, Zìzhìzhou, Zìzhìzhōu,
>>>>>> Zoba, Zone, Županija,
>>>>>> On Mon, Aug 10, 2009 at 8:33 AM, Gregor
>>>>>> Hagedorn<g.m.hagedorn at gmail.com>
>>>>>> wrote:
>>>>>>> At the moment I can only add small bits of geo-relevant comments to
>>>>>>> the dwc effort:
>>>>>>> --------
>>>>>>> 1. While studying the available terms for describing
>>>>>>> biodiversity-related images for MRTG, trying to reuse as many dwc
>>>>>>> terms as possible (unless higher priority standards already exists,
>>>>>>> such as dc or xmp, see
>>>>>>> http://www.keytonature.eu/wiki/MRTG_Schema_v0.7#Geography_Vocabulary),
>>>>>>> we note the conspicuous absence of
>>>>>>> ** city or place name **
>>>>>>> The term is available in iptc geo extension and is likely to be in
>>>>>>> the
>>>>>>> future routinely used on digital images. dwc has
>>>>>>> http://purl.org/dc/terms/Location
>>>>>>> Has Domain:
>>>>>>> Definition:     A spatial region or named place.
>>>>>>> and
>>>>>>> Identifier:     http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/locality
>>>>>>> Has Domain:     http://purl.org/dc/terms/Location
>>>>>>> Definition:     The specific description of the place. Less specific
>>>>>>> geographic information can be provided in other geographic terms
>>>>>>> (higherGeography, continent, country, stateProvince, county,
>>>>>>> waterBody, island, islandGroup). This term may contain information
>>>>>>> modified from the the original to correct perceived errors or
>>>>>>> standardize the description.
>>>>>>> Comment:        Example: "Bariloche, 25 km NNE via Ruta Nacional 40
>>>>>>> (=Ruta
>>>>>>> 237)". For discussion see
>>>>>>> http://code.google.com/p/darwincore/wiki/Location
>>>>>>> However, the first is very wide, and does not give the information
>>>>>>> that the type of object is a place or city name (it could be
>>>>>>> circumscription names like a province), the second is free from text.
>>>>>>> In many densely populated areas, separating the city or village name
>>>>>>> for easier finding is recommended, because these terms do occur in
>>>>>>> gazetteers. Could this be added to DWC?
>>>>>>> --------
>>>>>>> 2. If clarity is more important than brevity, I would greatly prefer
>>>>>>> stateOrProvince over the current stateProvince, which literally is
>>>>>>> the
>>>>>>> province of a state, which more less exists in Germany as
>>>>>>> administration province of a state of the federal republic
>>>>>>> (Regierungsbezirk).
>>>>>>> --------
>>>>>>> 3. The definition of county (perhaps better more international as
>>>>>>> "County or Subprovince") is:
>>>>>>> Term Name: county
>>>>>>> Identifier:     http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/county
>>>>>>> Has Domain:     http://purl.org/dc/terms/Location
>>>>>>> Definition:     The full, unabbreviated name of the next smaller
>>>>>>> political
>>>>>>> region than StateProvince (county, shire, department, etc.) in which
>>>>>>> the Location occurs.
>>>>>>> Comment:        Examples: "Missoula", "Los Lagos", "Mataró". For
>>>>>>> discussion
>>>>>>> see http://code.google.com/p/darwincore/wiki/Location
>>>>>>> Here, wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/County) suggests to
>>>>>>> interpret the German Kreis as equivalent to county; however, the
>>>>>>> literal definition above would require to map county to
>>>>>>> Regierungsbezirk.
>>>>>>> Many countries have a hierarchy of adminstrative political regions,
>>>>>>> and the highest may often not be the most relevant ones.
>>>>>>> I suggest to weaken the definition to a suggestions, perhaps:
>>>>>>> Definition:      The full, unabbreviated name of the most relevant
>>>>>>> political region between cities or villages and states or provinces
>>>>>>> (county, shire, department, etc.) in which the Location occurs.
>>>>>>> Gregor
>>>>>>> --
>>>>>>> ---------------------------------
>>>>>>> Dr. Gregor Hagedorn
>>>>>>> Heinrich-Seidel-Str. 2
>>>>>>> 12167 Berlin
>>>>>>> skype: g.hagedorn
>>>>>>> This message is sent on a personal basis and does not constitute an
>>>>>>> activity of the German Federal Government or its research
>>>>>>> institutions. Together with any attachments, this message is intended
>>>>>>> only for the person to whom it is addressed and may not be
>>>>>>> redistributed or published without permission.
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